Capital Science 2010

The Abstracts are preceded by a Table of Contents, which is divided into two sections: the highlights of the Conference followed by an alphabetical listing of the participating Affiliates. Entries in the Table of Contents are linked to the Abstracts of their respective Affiliates. In addition, several videos of presentations are also linked to the Table of Contents as well as to individual the Abstracts.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Saturday Dinner Talk -Keynote Address NSF Director Arden Bement “Saper Vedere: 50 Years of Insights through Laser” 
Saturday Luncheon Talk Dr. Jay Sanders.“Where are We and Where do We Need to Be?”
Sunday Luncheon Talk Dr. Jim Yorke. Chaos Sensitivity to Initial Data
Plenary Session Growing up with Science at PBS Presented by Donelle Blubaugh, Director Pre-K 12 Education, PBS
Plenary Session Science Debate 2008 – Update 2010 – Abstract The video of the session is at http://www.viddler.com/explore/sciencedebate/videos/1 Note: in moving our site to a new server, InlineBits inadvertently destroyed the video. Until we can locate another copy, the link will take you to the Viddler site.
Mary Woolley’s presentation is at woolley.pdf
 
AAAS – Center for Curriculum Materials in Science Heather Malcomson, editor SB&F and Maria Sosa, Senior Project Director, AAAS Excellence in Children’s Science Books
ACM – DC Chapter (formerly Association for Computing Machinery 1. Li Chen, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of the District of Columbia A Digital-Discrete Method For Smooth-Continuous Data Reconstruction
2. Bill Spees, PhD, Forensic Software Engineer, FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Division of Electrical and Software Engineering; Practitioner Faculty, University of Phonex Online and Don C. Berndt, Mapletech Productions, LLC Introducing State Machines in Everyday Devices
American Society of Cybernetics 1. Stuart Umpleby, Professor, Department of Management and Director of the Research Program in Social and Organizational Learning in the School of Business, The George Washington University From Complexity to Reflexivity (underlying logics used in science)
2. Ia Natsvlishvili, Associate Professor at Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi Georgia, and Visiting Scholar at The George Washington University, Washington D.C. Georgia’s Actions to Become Integrated into the International Community: A Test of Social Science Knowledge
3. Kent Myers, SAIC and Office of the Director of National Intelligence The Reflexive Practitioner
4. Lowell F. Christy Jr. Ph.D. Chairman, Cultural Strategies Institute Notes from the Field: Applied Reflexive Systems Thinking and Wicked Problems
5. Joseph M. Firestone, Ph.D., Managing Director Knowledge Management Consortium International The Relevance of Reflexivity
American Society for Technical Innovation 1. Thomas Meylan, PhD, Digital Clones, Inc. An Algebra for Determining the Value Produced or Consumed by Executive Behavior
2. Gene Allen, Decision Incite Opportunities and Challenges in Technology Commercialization
3.Geoffrey P. Malafsky, Phasic Systems, Inc. Data Manufactory — NextGen Unified Data Management
4. F. D. Witherspoon, HyperV Technologies Corp. Status of Plasma Guns for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX)
5.Robin Stombler, Auburn Health Strategies, LLC Where’s My Nobel Prize and Other Public Relations Faux Pas
6. Richard F. Hubbard, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory An Overview of Research at the Naval Research Laboratory’s Plasma Physics Division
7. John Bosma, ArcXeon, LLC Multifunctional Electronic Textiles for Accelerating Poor-Nation Development- Mass-Producible High ‘Technology-Churn’ Platforms for Disruptive, Communications-Driven Development
8. Bob Kolodney Clearing Fog and Smog – A Potential Solution
Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), DC and Northern Virginia Sections 1. Steve Tracton, Consulting Meteorologist Do Solar Storms Threaten Life as We Know It?
2. Gerard Christman In Support of Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: A Model for Net-Centric, Federated Information Sharing Amongst US Interagency, Non-Governmental and International Oranizations
3. Nick Tran, CEO and Founder, Oceanoco Inc. UV Emissions from Sonoluminescing Microbubbles
4. Tim Weil, Director, IEEE DC Section Preserving Our Section History with IEEE Global History Network (GHN) Excerpted from the Nov. 2009 IEEE History Journal
5. Haik Biglari, Zareh Soghomonian, and Zaven Kalayjian Past, Present and Future of the Electrical Power Grid
6. Robert Noteboom, Raj Madhavan, Gil Blankenship, and Ted Knight Autonomous Robot Speedway Competition
6. James C. Tilton, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Application Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications
8. Paul Cotae, University of the District of Columbia Work in Progress: Teaching Wireless Sensor Network Communicaton through Laboratory Experiments
9. Kiki Ikossi, DTRA, R&D-CB Modeling and Measurement of Contact Parameters in Nanostructures10.Barry Tilton, P.E. Chair, IEEE Northern VA Section Survey of implications of new geospatial standards and enhanced observables to next generation Geospatial Information Systems
Institute of Industrial Engineers, National Capital Chapter/Washington Chapter of the Institute for Operations Research and Management Sciences Anand Subramanian(1), Ram R. Bishu(2), Jeffrey E. Fernandez(1), and Deepak Subramanian(3) Does lean-six sigma (lss) effort help predict the quality of the product and increase profitability? A healthcare industry study (1)JFAssociates, Inc. Vienna, VA (2)Department of Industrial Engineering University of Nebraska-Lincoln Lincoln, NE (3)Accenture India Chennai, India
2. Anil R Kumar, Brandy Ware and Jeffrey Fernandez, JFAssociates, Inc Virtual Office Ergonomics Evaluation: A Cost Effective Green Office Implementation Method
3. Charles D. Burdick, Lockheed Martin Inc. Overview of the DoD Analytic Agenda
4. Charles D. Burdick, Lockheed Martin Inc. Addressing Hybrid Warfare in a Campaign Environment
5 Steven Wilcox Simulation Modeling as a Paradigm for Quantitative Sociological Research
6. Neal F. Schmeidler, OMNI Engineering & Technology, Inc. Staffing Model Development
7. Nastaran Coleman and Ellis Feldman, Federal Aviation Administration Estimating Conflict Detection Counts in Air Traffic
8. Russell R. Vane III Modeling an Adaptive Competitor
John W. Kluge Center of the Library of Congress Mary Lou Reker,Special Assistant to the Director Office of Scholarly Programs Library of Congress Where Scholars Gather
Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences Nancy Huddleston and Ian Kraucunas, National Research Council; Jes Koepfler or Joe Heimlich, Institute for Learning Innovation; Sapna Batish, Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences Communicating Climate Change
National Capital Section/Optical Society of America & IEEE/Photonics Society 1. George Simonis Opening Remarks on the Early Developments of the Laser
2. Ron Driggers , Naval Research Laboratory Overview of Optical Sciences and Laser-related R&D at NRL
3. Mike Krainak, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center NASA: Lasers in Space
4. John Degnan , Sigma Space Corp 3-D Imaging Lidar
5. John Wood , NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Measurements of the Polar Ice
6.Ward Trussell , Night Vision Laboratory Development of Compact Lasers for Army Applications at NVESD
7. Gary Wood , United States Army Research Laboratory DOD High-Energy Solid State Lasers and Selected Laser-Related Efforts at ARL
8. Grace Metcalfe , United States Army Research Laboratory Generation & Utilization of Optically-Generated THz Radiation
9. Ron Waynant , Food and Drug Administration Light Therapy and Free Radical Production: Their Role in Cell Function and Disease
10. Ilko Ilev , Food and Drug Administration Advanced Multifunctional Sensing and Imaging Approaches in Biophotonics and Nanobiophotonics
National Institute of Standards and Technology/University of Maryland Joint Quantum Institute Panel Presentation: Climate Change and its Mitigation: The Role of Measurement Presenters:
1.Gerald (Jerry) Fraser, Chief , NIST Optical Technology Division, (Examples of Satellite Calibration work)
2. Yoshi Ohno, Group Leader in Optical Technology Division (Examples of Solid-State Lighting work)
3:Hunter Fanney, Chief, NIST Building Environment Division (Examples of Solar Panel work).
Panel Presentation: The Second Quantum Revolution: Putting Weirdness to Work
1. Steven L. Rolston, Professor of Physics, University of Maryland; Co-Director, Joint Quantum Institute Planck to the Present
2. Luis A. Orozco, Professor of Physics, University of Maryland; Co-Director, JQI Physics Frontier Center The Quantum Frontier Today
3. Carl J. Williams, Chief, Atomic Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology; Co-Director,Joint Quantum Institute (JQI); Adjunct Professor, University of Maryland Applications for Tomorrow
Philosophical Society of Washington 1. Eugenie V. Mielczarek Department of Physics, Professor Emeritus George Mason University The Nexus of Physics and Biology
2. Kenneth Haapala, Executive Vice President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) Nature Rules the Climate: The Physical Evidence
3. Larry Millstein, Practicing Biotechnology Patent Law – Millen, White, Zelano & Branigan, PC Sequencing Single DNA Molecule and NexGen Genomics
4. Major Catherine M. With,Legal Counsel, The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology The Legal Landscape of Personalized Medicine
Potomac Chapter of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 1. William A. Schaudt(1), Darrell S. Bowman(1), Joseph Bocanegra(1), Richard J. Hanowski1, and Chris Flanigan(2) Enhanced Rear Signaling (ERS) for Heavy Trucks: Mitigating Rear-End Crashes Using Visual Warning Signals(1)Virginia Tech Transportation Institute, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (2)U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington D.C. 20590
2. Gerald P. Krueger, Ph.D.,Krueger Ergonomics Consultants, Alexandria, VA Effects of Medications, Other Drugs, and Nutritional Supplements on Driving Alertness and Performance
3. Nicole E. Werner, David M. Cades, Deborah A. Boehm-Davis, Matthew S. Peterson, Sahar J. Alothman, and Xiaoxue Zhang, George Mason University Where was I and what was I doing? Individual differences in resuming after an interruption and implications for real-world distractions
4. Erik Nelson David G Kidd, and David M Cades, George Mason University. The effect of repeated exposures to simulated driving on ratings of simulator sickness
Potomac Overlook Regional Park Authority (a property of the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority) Martin Ogle, Chief Naturalist Viewing Nature through the “Lens” of Energy
Salisbury University, Washington Academy of Sciences Student Chapter 1. Chuck Davis Effects of nitrogen availability on lipid production in Neochloris oleoabundans Faculty Advisor: Dr. Mark Holland, Department of Biology Salisbury University
2. Katie Pflaum and Justin McGrath Use of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus to control infection in Caenorhabditis elegans Faculty Advisor: Dr. Elizabeth Emmert, Department of Biology Salisbury University
3. Christina M. Martin More than meets the ear: male position relative to foam nests influences female mate choice in the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus Faculty Advisor: Ryan Taylor, Department of Biology, Salisbury University
4. Denise L. Tweedale, Hannah Greene, and Lauren Kopishke Analysis of the Maryland Residential Housing Sales data, 1995 – 2005 Faculty Advisors: Dr. Mara Chen, Dr. Barbara Wainwright, Dr. Veera Holdai, Departments of Geography and Geosciences & Math and Computer Sciences, Salisbury University
5. Rebecca L. Flatley and Frederick D. Bauer The Risk and Vulnerability Impact Assessment of Sea Level Rise for Wicomico County, Maryland Faculty Advisors: Michael S. Scott, PhD and X. Mara Chen, PhD, Department of Geography and Geosciences, Salisbury University
6. Kayla Pennerman Cuscuta transmission and secondary infection of Fusarium wilt Faculty Advisor: Dr. Sam Geleta, Department of Biology, Salisbury University
7. Nicole S. Massarelli The Mathematics Behind Anamorphic Art Faculty Advisor: Dr. Don Spickler, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science,Salisbury University
8. Sabrina E. Kunciw Temperature-induced changes in the expression of enzymes involved in membrane restructuring in Coho salmon cells Faculty Advisor: E.Eugene Williams, Department of Biological Sciences, Salisbury University
9. Jordan Estes and Shelby Smith Nordihydroguiaretic Acid in the Polyploids of Larrea tridentata: Effects of Temperature and Developmental Stage Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kimberly Hunter, Department of Biology, Salisbury University
10. Catherine M. Walsh The Dynamics of Finite Cellular Automata with Null Boundary Conditions Faculty Advisor: Dr. Michael J Bardzell, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Salisbury University
11. Robert Figliozzi Synthesis of Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibiting Nordebromoflustramine B Faculty Advisor: Dr. Miguel Mitchell, Department of Chemistry, Henson School of Science and Technology, Salisbury University
12. Steven Sanders, Christine Davis and Brett Spangler Genetic Variability in Five Species of Tree Ferns Collected from Cusuco National Park (Honduras) Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kimberly Hunter, Department of Biology, Salisbury University
Science and Engineering Apprentice Program, George Washington University 1. Anh Dao, Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology Mentored by: Dr. Ramchandra S. Naik, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Quantification of Paraoxonase Activity in Animal Serum to Study Nerve Toxicity
2. Nader Salass, Washington International School and Ahmad Yassin, Lincoln Memorial University, Mentored by: CPT Jacob Johnson, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Dr. Geoffrey Dow, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Hit-to-Lead Evaluation of Antihistamines for Use in Treatment of Malaria
Washington Society for the History of Medicine 1. Stephen Greenberg Do Come Play: A Demonstration of Online Resources in the History of Medicine from NLM
2. Alain Touwaide Digitizing Renaissance Herbals – The PLANT Program
3. Christie Moffatt and Susan Speaker The Profiles in Science Project at the National Library of Medicine
4.Elizabeth Fee A Rapid Romp through the History of the World Health Organization
5. Patricia Tuohy, Head, Exhibition Program Medicine Ways: creating an exhibition about Native peoples’ concepts of health and illness
6.Jiwon Kim, Exhibition Program, History of Medicine Division, National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, MD History, Literature and Science: Engaging Educators and Students in Harry Potter’s World
7.Paul Theerman The History of Tropical Medicine, as seen in the Images and Archives Collections of the National Library of Medicine

 

ABSTRACTS AND PRESENTATIONS

 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE

Heather Malcomson and Maria Sosa Excellence in Children’s Science Books
The AAAS/Subaru SB&F Prizes for Excellence in Science Books celebrate outstanding science writing and illustration for children and young adults. The prizes are part of SB&F’s initiative to encourage more reading, writing and publishing of quality science books. SB&F, the review journal of AAAS, has been reviewing science books for children and young adults for over 45 years. The SB&F Prizes began in 2005 by looking back on decades of outstanding science books and honoring five authors and one illustrator for their significant and lasting contribution to children’s and young adult science literature and illustration. Beginning in 2006, the prizes began honoring recently published, individual science books. The prizes emphasize the importance of good science books and encourage children and young adults to turn to science books, not only for information, but for enjoyment too. Learn more about the prizes and how you can help promote the mission of encouraging excellence in the publishing of children’s science books.

 

ACM – DC CHAPTER (formerly the Association for Computing Machinery

Li Chen, Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of the District of Columbia A Digital-Discrete Method For Smooth-Continuous Data Reconstruction A Digital-Discrete Method For Smooth-Continuous Data Reconstruction
A systematic digital-discrete method for obtaining continuous functions with smoothness to a certain order (C^n) from sample data is designed. This method is based on gradually varied functions and the classical finite difference method. This new method has been applied to real groundwater data and the results have validated the method. This method is independent from existing popular methods such as the cubic spline method and the finite element method. The new digital-discrete method has considerable advantages for a large amount of real data applications. This digital method also differs from other classical discrete method that usually uses triangulations. This method can potentially be used to obtain smooth functions such as polynomials through its derivatives f^{(k)} and the solution for partial differential equations such as harmonic and other important equations.
Bill Spees, PhD, Forensic Software Engineer, Division of Electrical and Software Engineering Center for Devices and Radiological Health Office of Science and Technology, Food and Drug Administration and Practitioner Faculty, University of Phoenix Online Introducing machines in everyday devices
State machines (FSMs) were developed to keep simple control, simple. A state machine is a conceptual or “paper” machine; it has no preference as to its realization. State machines localize control to a “state”, which is a domain much smaller and simpler than the whole problem. A state is designed to handle only a certain set of “events” that can happen. The state knows how to handle its limited vocabulary of events by doing a (possibly empty) set of actions and going to a particular state (which may not be different from the present state). Events that aren’t handled are rejected. Almost every digital electronic device is designed as a state machine, including cell phones, cruise controls, TV remote controls, clocks, watches, call management systems. FSMs have so reduced cost and complexity of developing technology that “high tech” wouldn’t exist without them. Simple systems would have more parts; new designs would be discouraged; and devices would be more discrete because integration would pose a risk of complete project failure. In this short presentation we will explore the states of a phone call management system based on a state machine. Along the way, we will talk about how to recognize the state machines in other technology that we encounter every day, with a view to clarifying our understanding of the capabilities and limitations of state machines.

 

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF CYBERNETICS

Stuart Umpleby, Professor, Department of Management and Director of the Research Program in Social and Organizational Learning in the School of Business, The George Washington University From Complexity to Reflexivity (underlying logics used in science)
This talk describes the basic features of the theories of complexity and reflexivity, their early history, their evolution, and reactions to date. Although complexity is a major change from previous modeling methods, it does not violate any informal fallacies or any assumptions underlying the philosophy of science. Reflexivity does. Accepting reflexivity as a legiti-mate movement in science will require an expansion of the conception of science which still prevails in most fields. A shift from Science One to Science Two is now being discussed. The talk explains what is being proposed
Ia Natsvlishvili, Associate Professor at Tbilisi State University, Tbilisi Georgia, and Visiting Scholar at The George Washington University, Washington D.C. Georgia’s Actions to Become Integrated into the International Community: A Test of Social Science Knowledge
The paper argues that for the improvement of the economic and social state of transitional countries institutional reforms and integration into the international community have great importance because successful institutional reforms encourage investment flow. However, funds from local sources in transitional countries, particularly in Georgia, are limited. That is why the main priority is to attract foreign investments. But foreign investments require important institutional changes. Successful institutional reforms in Georgia were based on the concepts of the “Washington Consensus”. The term “Washington Consensus” refers to the macroeconomic policies that scientists and policymakers in Washington believe governments of emerging market economies should follow in order to promote their development. Remarkable actions are also being made to integrate into the European higher education area. Georgia is in the process of successfully implementing the recommendations of the ambitious European Project, the “Bologna Process,” that will support Georgia’s integration into the international educational community. The paper describes Georgia’s actions to become integrated into the international community as a positive test of the “Washington Consensus” policies and the “Bologna Process”. The paper describes the Georgian economy and industries where foreign direct investments are being made to illustrate how institutional reforms can create an attractive business environment and support economic growth. Georgia remains an attractive country for foreign investors for several reasons: adequate institutional reforms and a free market oriented economic policy, an attractive macroeconomic environment, competitive trade regulations, a liberal tax code, an aggressive privatization policy, modernized business licensing, an adequate technical regulation system, a strategic geographical location, a competitive and dynamic banking sector, an ancient culture and traditions, steady transformation to a market economy, and diverse investment opportunities. The paper argues that despite the current global financial crisis and the Russian-Georgia War in 2008 Georgia remains an attractive place for investments because of successfully implemented institutional reforms.
Kent Myers, SAIC and Office of the Director of National Intelligence The Reflexive Practitioner
Turbulent society requires a high rate of learning and adaptation. The professionals who mediate institutional responses to turbulence are increasingly ineffective, in part because they employ anachronistic mindsets that limit sensemaking. Three such mindsets are: Rational, Principled, and Interested. We describe a Reflexive mindset that works better today. It does not offer the (illusory) satisfactions of the other mindsets. It can also be criticized as having parted from science, traditionally understood. It is, however, well matched with “phronetic social science” and other recent deviations. We briefly discuss how reflexive practice could improve the performance of national intelligence, a practice area where turbulence is undeniable and where traditional social science has had little to offer.
Lowell F. Christy Jr. Ph.D. Chairman, Cultural Strategies Institute Notes from the Field: Applied Reflexive Systems Thinking and Wicked Problems (Abstract Only)
The way-we-think about problems matters. The “mind helps” of the scientific method have opened new ways of understanding our physical world. The scientific method has helped transform the world around us via technology and applied knowledge based on our understandings. From Francis Bacon to Thomas Kuhn and the “Structure of Scientific Revolutions” our understanding of thinking patterns has provided great leverage to impact problems of change. Simple change entailing physical force and use of scientific knowledge to create new processes and materials as well as complicated change like the teams of engineers to put a man on the moon are informed via existing paradigms of thinking But in living systems, particularly human systems, our rational thought and professional experts have not had such success. The human landscape lies in tatters. This is not merely a matter of simple or complicated change but complex change. Apart from the theories of reflexive systems thinking how can we impact complex, “wicked problems?” This presentation will report on applied reflexive thinking in the Cultural Strategies Institute’s “Outposts of Innovation.” The field notes from Afghanistan, Jordan and Uganda will be used as examples of how cybernetics and systems thinking can be applied to create those levers of change. Concrete examples of design of interventions for systemic change, the limits of thought, unintended consequences and metrics for systemic change for wicked problems will be outlined for discussion
Joseph M. Firestone, Ph.D., Managing Director Knowledge Management Consortium International The Relevance of Reflexivity (Abstract Only)
The way-we-think about problems matters. The “mind helps” of the scientific method have opened new ways of understanding our physical world. The scientific method has helped transform the world around us via technology and applied knowledge based on our understandings. From Francis Bacon to Thomas Kuhn and the “Structure of Scientific Revolutions” our understanding of thinking patterns has provided great leverage to impact problems of change. Simple change entailing physical force and use of scientific knowledge to create new processes and materials as well as complicated change like the teams of engineers to put a man on the moon are informed via existing paradigms of thinking But in living systems, particularly human systems, our rational thought and professional experts have not had such success. The human landscape lies in tatters. This is not merely a matter of simple or complicated change but complex change. Apart from the theories of reflexive systems thinking how can we impact complex, “wicked problems?” This presentation will report on applied reflexive thinking in the Cultural Strategies Institute’s “Outposts of Innovation.” The field notes from Afghanistan, Jordan and Uganda will be used as examples of how cybernetics and systems thinking can be applied to create those levers of change. Concrete examples of design of interventions for systemic change, the limits of thought, unintended consequences and metrics for systemic change for wicked problems will be outlined for discussion

AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR TECHNICAL INNOVATION

Thomas Meylan, Digital Clones, Inc. An Algebra for Determining the Value Produced or Consumed by Executive Behavior )
The behaviors of an organization’s executive team (as well as those of lower management) will always cost the organization in some vital resource. For major organizations, such as Fortune 500 companies and governmental organizations (from the large metropolitan area to the US Government), the two most commonly affected resources are capital and public opinion. The question then becomes, “What is the Return On Investment (ROI) made to support a given executive’s or manager’s behaviors?” Based on the Drive Satisfaction Strategy Theory of organizational formation and evolution, an “algebra” quantifying the ROI of two specific classes of in-house, executive behavior is defined, with theoretical justifications. The algebra will be applied to “adversarial executive behavior” and “collaborative executive behavior” to demonstrate how it can be used to determine the time-dependent “deltas” in corporate value generated by such behaviors. The terms “adversarial” and “collaborative” are to be understood in reference to the mission of the organization, i.e., that an executive’s behaviors result in diminished organizational success or in enhanced success. These terms are therefore to be understood also as relating to measurable performance metrics, as yet to be defined. To be explicit, a positive ROI on executive behavior indicates that the investment to support an executive behavior led to greater success for the organization. The algebra supplies an objective, quantifiable means of determining that value.
Gene Allen, Decision Incite Inc. Opportunities and Challenges in Technology Commercialization
We have all benefited from the ability to apply new technologies to improve the quality of human existence. While there have always been challenges to technology commercialization, the challenges have evolved. I will be sharing recent experiences in efforts to improve the engineering process through the use of commodity computing. This will be addressed in the context of the economic disruption we are experiencing with a hypothesis being presented on the underlying cause – that being: 1. We are victims of our own success in that a small percentage of the world’s population can now not only feed, but produce all the material goods societies need; 2. As a result the U.S. business culture has shifted focus from wealth generation to wealth manipulation, generating economic bubbles that generate perceived wealth versus real wealth. Demographics, markets, and incentives will be reviewed for what will be needed to provide food, energy, and environmental security in a politically stable world. A process for addressing contingencies will be included in the discussion. The presentation will set the stage for technology deployment opportunities we will need to enable the continued progression of humanity
Geoffrey P Malafsky, Phasic Systems Inc. Data Manufactory — NextGen Unified Data Management
Data management is notoriously expensive, complicated, and error-prone. Too many organizations spend large amounts of money and time on software, consultants, technical staff, and seemingly endless business improvement projects only to end up where they began. Data is disconnected across business units; data cannot be trusted; data reports have wrong information; and, the supposedly same data means different things to different groups. These problems are widely recognized and have spawned new industry efforts in enterprise architecture, Master Data Management (MDM), and data governance. Although each of these efforts proffers good guidance and real benefits, a single coordinated data lifecycle is needed instead of fragmented processes. Data must be treated as the critical organizational asset it is. Data manufactory is this coordinated management process recognizing that organizations manufacture data and can dramatically improve their efficiency and quality by adopting manufacturing best practices. Outside of the data management world, a revolution occurred in manufacturing and management that vastly increased efficiency, productivity, and quality. Global businesses operate in far-flung locations producing parts for a single product with higher quality and cost-efficiency than a typical moderately sized enterprise data system. Within the data management world, businesses have been forced to choose products from a moribund industry out-of-step with modern practices. Organizations can no longer muddle through because of the critical role data plays in executive decision-making, manufacturing, and increasingly, regulatory reporting (Abstract Only)
F. D. Witherspoon, HyperV Technolgies Corp Status of Plasma Guns for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX)*
High velocity dense plasma jets have been under development at HyperV Technologies Corp. for the past several years for a variety of fusion applications such as magneto-inertial fusion, refueling of magnetic confinement devices, high energy density plasmas, plasma thrusters, and others. In particular, a spherical array of minirailgun plasma accelerators is planned for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) to be located at Los Alamos National Laboratory, and to be performed in collaboration also with the University of Alabama (Huntsville), the University of New Mexico (Albuquerque), and the University of Nevada (Reno). The imploding plasma liner will be formed via the merging of 30 (or more) dense, high Mach number plasma jets arranged in a spherically convergent geometry in a 9 foot diameter spherical vacuum chamber on loan from NASA. Small parallel-plate railguns are being developed for this purpose, due to their reduced system complexity and cost, with each gun planned to operate at 400-500 kA peak current, and launching up to 8000 micrograms of high-Z plasma using high voltage pulse forming networks. We describe the operation of these minirailguns, their development, their current and projected performance, and their use in the PLX experiment. *Work supported by the U.S. DOE Joint Program in HEDLP. (Abstract Only)
Robin Stombler, Auburn Health Strategies, LLC Where’s My Nobel Prize and Other Public Relations Faux Pas
Intellectual honesty and smarts, enthusiasm, a commitment to pursue an idea for the long-haul, openness to exploration, and creativity are all important traits for a good scientist to possess. Translating science from the laboratory to commerce requires these same elements. Yet, sometimes scientists stop acting like scientists past the point of discovery. This presentation will discuss why many scientific ideas and exciting research efforts fail to garner much public attention. It will outline strategies all scientists may engage in the pursuit of improved public relations.
Richard F. Hubbard, Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC An Overview of Research at the Naval Research Laboratory’s Plasma Physics
The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is designated the Navy’s Corporate Laboratory and is widely considered one of the nation’s leading research institutions. The NRL Plasma Physics Division performs a broad range of both basic and applied research that addresses key problems for the Navy and the nation. Plasmas are ionized gases that occur in many natural or laboratory environments. The Division has several high-power laser facilities that generate plasmas for applications in inertial fusion energy (IFE), directed energy weapons, remote detection of explosives or weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), compact particle beam accelerators, and triggered lightning discharges. In the case of the krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser used for IFE, the gain medium for the laser is also a plasma. The Division also has several large pulsed power devices, which generate high voltage electrical pulses that are used for flash x-ray radiography, WMD detection, and electromagnetic launchers (railguns). The Division also has a unique materials processing facility that uses electron beam-generated plasmas that can be used to modify fragile materials such as polymers and grapheme that would be damaged by conventional discharge produced processing plasmas. Finally, there is an extensive effort in space plasma physics and “space weather”. This area is of considerable interest to the Navy and DOD because of space plasma effects on communications and space-based assets.
Supported by the Office of Naval Research (ONR)To be presented at CapSci2010, Washington Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC27 March 2010 (Abstract Only)
John Bosma, ArcXeon LLC Baltimore, MD Multifunctional Electronic Textiles for Accelerating Poor-Nation Development- Mass-Producible High ‘Technology-Churn’ Platforms for Disruptive, Communications-Driven Development
The concept is to use a single high-tech platform with multiple embeddable functions to solve massive development problems fast while unleashing local entrepreneurial talents. This concept turns the traditional development paradigm on its ear: (1) typical ‘stovepiped’ overseas development approaches all ‘infrastructure’ functions (e.g. housing, food/water, sewage, waste, electric power, communications, literacy, health/medical, security) separately; (2) this means that deploying each function or ‘utility’ demands a separate champion, funder, approval or buy-in chain, local builders, etc. – because traditional poor-nation development mandates this stovepiping; (3) The Result is top-down (vs. bottom-up) development axis, enormous transaction costs, corruption incentives, old technologies preferentially fielded; (4) A Better idea – aggregate these functions for simultaneous deployment via one platform and launch their new owners and users into the Internet age immediately for accelerated development; (5) The idea is to select a single platform that can draw on US, European, Asian-Pacific Rim consumer and business constituencies and contributors, with full access to ‘technology churn’ that commoditizes utility functions at progressively lower cost; (6) ‘Disruptive Development’ via early communications/Internet capability is seen by development experts like Clayton Christiansen (Harvard Business School) as a new model for poor-nation economic development. (Abstract Only)
Bob Kolodney Clearing Fog and Smog – A Potential Solution
This talk discusses a new venture based on a patented device that clears fog and smog and causes precipitation. The device represents the cutting edge of atmospheric precipitation technology. The equipment generates negative ions and directs them into the atmosphere. This causes the intensification of existing clouds and creates clouds where none exist, and in due course, as the clouds become more dense with water droplets, there is precipitation. The device appears to be effective in air pollution control, and in creating rain. It is generally possible to disperse fog within a few hours, and initiate precipitation within 24-48 hours of starting up the equipment – after a period of 2-3 weeks of preliminary preparation (analysis, establishment of operating algorithms). Adjustments in operating algorithms and equipment set-up are made according to circumstances of temperature, almospheric pressure, wind, humidity, geography. A group of 3 to 5 units of equipment can serve an area of 20 by 80 kilometers. The Russian inventors are able to get results under many different meteorological conditions, and expect that they will be able to provide assistance in circumstances of fog around airports, smog in cities, droughts, and forest fires. They are particularly hopeful that they can provide assistance to farmers faced with drying conditions due to global warming. The first generation of this equipment was conceived to clear fog around airports in the former Soviet Union, and improvements were made in stages over a period of 30 years until initiation of precipitation became possible. The company is negotiating with several potential customers for a comprehensive demonstration project. (Abstract Only)

 

INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS (IEEE), DC AND NORTHERN VIRGINIA SECTIONS

Steve Tracton Consulting Meteorologist Do Solar Storms Threaten Life as We Know It? Steve Tracton Consulting Meteorologist Do Solar Storms Threaten Life as We Know It? (Abstract Only)
As severe as the possible effects of global warming might be, many of the worst-case impacts are not likely to occur on timescales less than a decade or so. Of perhaps more immediate concern to civilization as we know it — quite literally — is the threat posed by the expected increase in solar activity starting around 2011-2012, which could disrupt many aspects of life that societies now take for granted and depend heavily upon for their daily existence. Electric power grids, communications and navigation systems (including GPS), and satellites (including weather) could be damaged beyond repair for many years. The consequences could be devastating for commerce, transportation, agriculture and food stocks, fuel and water supplies, human health and medical facilities, national security, and daily life in general
Gerard Christman, Program Manager & Sr. Systems Engr. Office of the Secretary of Defense Technical Services FCI In Support of Complex Humanitarian Emergencies: A Model for Net-Centric, Federated Information Sharing Amongst US Interagency, Non-Governmental and International Organizations
In November 2006, the US Department of Defense issued a new policy entitled Stability, Security, Transition and Reconstruction Operations (DoDD 3000.05). This policy mandated that the US military must treat SSTR Operations, now shortened to Stability Operations, on par with major combat operations. Recent efforts in Haiti indicate there remain significant challenges to civil-military coordination. On the critical path to successful accomplishment of Stability Operations is the ability to communicate, collaborate, translate and engage with the civil portion of the calculus. From a military perspective, neither will the civil side be commanded nor will it often be controlled. Therefore, traditional C2 methods are not applicable in managing processes that cross the civil-military boundary while engaged in Stability Operations. The focus of this paper regards research into a methodological approach to bridging civil and military systems that support their distinct business processes with a view towards enhancing shared situational awareness, a common assessment framework, providing a common basis for planning, and a synchronized ability to execute those plans.
Nick E. Tran, CEO & Founder, Oceanoco Inc. UV Emissions from Sonoluminescing Microbubbles
In this presentation, we will provide the first direct evidence of UV emissions resulting from cavitational collapse of microbubbles in water at ambient pressure. The microbubbles were observed to emit photons of energies exceeding 6 eV as they underwent asymmetric collapse at the silicon photodiode detector surface. Each photoemission event consisted of 106-107 photons with irradiance intensities in excess of 1.4×10-6 W/cm2. The calculated curve fits from black body radiation and Bremsstrahlung radiation indicate that the cavitational collapse of the microbubble generated a plasma temperature around 250,000K. To our knowledge, this is the highest temperature that has ever been recorded for this phenomenon since it was first reported by Frenzel and Schultes in 1934.
Tim Weil, Director, IEEE DC Section Preserving Our Section History with IEEE Global History Network (GHN)Excerpted from the November 2009 IEEE History Journal
The Washington, D.C. Section offers a wonderful example of how an IEEE organizational unit can use the GHN to preserve and showcase its institutional memory. Many of the Section’s early records have been lost. But fortunately, back in the early 1950s, someone in the Section put together a large scrapbook of photographs and extensive summaries of the records spanning the fifty year period from 1903 to 1953. Recently, this Section has placed all these documents on the GHN. Not only does this material offer a fascinating glimpse into the Section’s past, but it also offers a window on to the early history of AIEE, the development of the engineering profession in the U.S., and even the history of the District of Columbia. One photograph found in the Washington, D.C., Section,archives page on the GHN is a rare aerial view of the D.C.urban landscape, taken from a U.S. Army Signal Corps balloon.Another photo shows a 1908 laboratory at the National Bureauof Standards.In September 1904, the International Electrical Congress was held in St Louis. Prominent electrical engineers made up the delegations from the world’s industrialized nations. During their stay in the U.S.A., most visited the nation’scapital and The Washington D.C. Section was the official host. Preserving institutional “memory” and making it easily accessible to all is essential to the long-term continuity of IEEE. The GHN offers IEEE’s technical and geographical units an easy to use platform to both preserve important historical documents and to share them easily with the membership at large. We encourage Societies, Regions, and Sections to preserve and showcase their memories on the GHN. If your organizational unit has not done this yet, we hope you will follow the examples of those that have done so. As an illustration of what can be done, examine the pages created for the Washington, D.C. Section on the GHN This presentation will describe the process by which 50 years of IEEE Section History (Washington Section) was digitally archived and made available to our members. The talk will also focus on the values and continuity of a major project to preserve institutional memory for future generations of Electrical Engineers
Haik Biglari, Zareh Soghomonian, and Zaven Kalayjian Past, Present and Future of the Electrical Power Grid (Abstract Only)
The twentieth century witnessed the birth of the Electrical Power Grid (EPG) among many other discoveries and innovations. The EPG has served as the backbone of economic strength in many industrialized and developing countries. Considering that EPG covers vast geographical regions with large variations in environmental conditions, the system has proven to be fairly robust with only a few outages per decade in USA. This robustness was built into the system by carefully matching the amount of power generation to the electrical power demand of various load types. The need for larger power generation and reduction in CO2 emissions is putting a greater demand on the capabilities of EPG. The key to CO2 reduction is moving towards renewable energy. The robustness of EPG was due to predictability and centralized controllability of the energy resources. Unpredictability of renewable resources makes centralized control achievable only by construction of massive energy storage devices. The construction of large energy storage devices have proven to be economically and technically not feasible. The alternative is a decentralized control and further automation at the lowest possible load levels. It is clear that the lower the load level automation, the larger the scale of automation. An EPG compatible with such a large scale automation level which also incorporates renewable energy resources efficiently is said to be a Smart Grid (SG). The legacy of the twenty first century will be the birth of the SG.
Robert Noteboom, Raj Madhavan, Gil Blankenship, and Ted Knight Autonomous Robot Speedway Competition
For the past two years, the Washington/Northern Virginia Chapter of the IEEE Robotics & Automation Society and the University of Maryland Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE) Department have held an Annual Autonomous Robot Speedway Competition (ARSC) at the University of Maryland – College Park. The last iteration of this competition held in October 2009 invited teams of IEEE junior members, University students, and robotics club members to acquire a deeper appreciation of the state-of-the art and challenges that are currently the focus of research in robotics and automation. Competing teams were required to build and demonstrate a robot capable of traveling one mile on an oval track outlined with orange cones. The competitors were scored on speed and distance traversed as well as on a technical presentation about their robot. This presentation will provide an overview of the competition and a look at some of the competitors and winners from the past two years.
James C. Tilton, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Image Segmentation Analysis for NASA Earth Science Applications
NASA collects large volumes of imagery data from satellite-based Earth remote sensing sensors. Nearly all of the computerized image analysis of this data is performed pixel-by-pixel, in which an algorithm is applied directly to individual image pixels. While this analysis approach is satisfactory in many cases, it is usually not fully effective in extracting the full information content from the high spatial resolution image data that is now becoming increasingly available from these sensors. The field of object-based image analysis (OBIA) has arisen in recent years to address the need to move beyond pixel-based analysis. The Recursive Hierarchical Segmentation (RHSEG) software developed by the author is being used to facilitate moving from pixel-based image analysis to OBIA. The key unique aspect of RHSEG is that it tightly intertwines region growing segmentation, which produces spatially connected region objects, with region object classification, which groups sets of region objects together into region classes. No other practical, operational image segmentation approach has this tight integration of region growing object finding with region classification. This integration is made possible by the recursive, divide-and-conquer implementation utilized by RHSEG, in which the input image data is recursively subdivided until the image data sections are small enough to successfully mitigate the combinatorial explosion caused by the need to compute the dissimilarity between each pair of image pixels. RHSEG’s tight integration of region growing object finding and region classification is what enables the high spatial fidelity of the image segmentations produced by RHSEG. This presentation will provide an overview of the RHSEG algorithm and describe how it is currently being used to support OBIA for Earth Science applications such as snow/ice mapping and finding archaeological sites from remotely sensed data
Paul Cotae, University of the District of Columbia Work in Progress: Teaching Wireless Sensor Network Communication through Laboratory Experiments
Wireless communications is becoming a transparent technology with which incoming college students most certainly have vast firsthand experience as users. Wireless Sensors Network Communications often proves to be a quite challenging subject to teach because many students appear to find the subject too technical. In this paper, we present some undergoing capstone design projects and laboratory experiments to provide the students of wireless communication and networking with a hands-on experience. The motivation of this approach is twofold. First, the projects pertain to the area of wireless sensor networks where rapid technological changes in wireless sensing devices have changed the types of work electrical and computer-engineering students are likely to do in their careers. Second, student groups come up with their own project applications and problem statements for which to design a system.
Kiki Ikossi, Ph.D. DTRA, R&D-CB Modeling and Measurement of Contact Parameters in Nanostructures
Emerging areas of nano-electronics, nano-optics, and molecular electronics have a common challenge: the transfer of the information from the nano-scale to our macro world. Early demonstrations of advanced nano-devices incorporate accessible contacts to nanostructures. In order to observe the nano-scale phenomena, the contact parameters and the way the contacts interact with the nanostructures needs to be accurately evaluated. In this work a 3-dimensional multilayer distributed network model is developed that allows the extraction of contact and interface parameters. The model accounts the interactions between adjacent layers and relates the parameters to transmission line model measurements.
Barry C Tilton, P.E. Chair, IEEE Northern VA Section Survey of implications of new geospatial standards and enhanced observables to next generation Geospatial Information Systems (Abstract not available)

 

INSTITUTE OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS, NATIONAL CAPITAL CHAPTER/WASHINGTON CHAPTER OF THE INSTITUTE FOR OPERATIONS RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES

Anand Subramanian(1), Ram R. Bishu(2), Jeffrey E. Fernandez(1), and Deepak Subramanian(3) Does lean-six sigma (lss) effort help predict the quality of the product and increase profitability? A healthcare industry study (Abstract Only)
(1)JFAssociates, Inc. Vienna, VA (2)Department of Industrial Engineering University of Nebraska-Lincoln Lincoln, NE (3)Accenture India Chennai, India
Traditionally, the terms quality and process improvement has been associated with the manufacturing industry. Improving the quality of a product or service has increased customer satisfaction and the profitability of organizations. The importance of quality in health care has been recognized and analyzed in recent years. Hospitals across the United States are beginning to embrace lean and Six Sigma business management strategies in attempts to reduce costs and improve productivity. While applied in manufacturing extensively—and applicable to all industries—these management methods have moved into healthcare recently, but with little substantive data available for hospitals to assess the worth of the methods. This presentation discusses the methodology to use six sigma tools in health care sector. It also explores the fact “process quality leads to product quality” and how it translates to lowering healthcare costs, generate additional savings, and improve patient outcomes and thereby increasing the revenue per bed. Additionally, it also aims to present some of the critical reasons why hospitals have problems implementing the Lean-Six Sigma methods. This study implements the most widely used model for quality in healthcare-“Structure-Process-Outcome” model; the methodology and preliminary results of the implementation process at a health care facility in the Southwest United States will be presented.
Anil R Kumar, Brandy Ware and Jeffrey Fernandez, JFAssociates, Inc Virtual Office Ergonomics Evaluation: A Cost Effective Green Office Implementation Method (Abstract Only)
In the office environment, musculoskeletal disorders such as carpal tunnel syndrome are prevalent due the presence of injury risk factors. Injuries often begin as discomfort and are caused by the exposure over a period of time to the repetitive nature of work (long term keyboard and mouse use) or inappropriately adjusted equipment (i.e. chair and desk). More often than not, the factors causing discomfort can be accessed through a workplace evaluation performed by a qualified individual such as an ergonomist. Many companies do not have the expertise to conduct evaluations in-house and hire a qualified ergonomist. The process followed by the ergonomist during the assessment includes visiting the workplace to interview the client, collecting measurements of the client and workplace, and making recommendations. During the on-site evaluation, the client must host the ergonomist by meeting them, escorting them to their work area, and spending undivided attention while the ergonomist is there. This time away from their work decreases productivity. From the ergonomist’s perspective, there is time spent commuting, and collecting measurements at the workplace. In both of these cases, the cost is transferred to the client. The speed of business today leads clients to expect a shorter delivery time for the evaluations. Due to these factors, there is a need for a cost effective approach to solving office ergonomics related problems. One approach is to provide ergonomic evaluations through a virtual ergonomist (i.e. not on-site). The evaluation is initiated by client contacting the service provider and concludes with the virtual ergonomist following up with the client after recommending the necessary modifications. The evaluation of the workstation includes all of the same basic elements of an in-person evaluation along with the same deliverables. A virtual system requires an understanding of the information needed, comprehensive mastery of the fundamental office ergonomics principles and their application, and an appropriate interpretation of the data provided by client. In most cases, only a certified and qualified ergonomist(s) is an appropriate choice for these evaluations. The most advanced application of a virtual ergonomist involves the use of the internet as a platform for providing the aforementioned services. With that said, a website with interactive screens was developed to solicit information. Additionally, the website provided the user with the capability to upload pictures and videos for review. The presentation provides details of the system that was developed and implemented to provide virtual office ergonomic evaluations. The critical ergonomic considerations implemented while soliciting the questions over the interactive screens are also described.
Charles D. Burdick, Lockheed Martin Inc. Overview of the DoD Analytic Agenda (Abstract Only)
Most of the large Government analysis organizations have traditionally maintained one or more large campaign models to simultaneously evaluate all their equipment and procedures and justify changes. To feed these models, these organizations had to put together scenarios of likely situations where both the concepts and equipment interacted as they would be expected to work in wartime situations. The results of simulating these scenarios have then been used to determine the relative value of portrayed systems in these operational concepts and to make trade-offs among the alternatives that provide an optimal force. All of these different campaign models are represented as being joint, meaning they involve the forces of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Marines, however, the scenarios chosen for them in the past have generally reflected the different points of view of each military service. Thus, when data was collected for the models, it often came from a variety of sources and timeframes, making it difficult to merge into a common simulation environment. The various analysis teams usually ended up employing their own Subject Matter Experts (SME) to build unique scenarios for each project and analysis task. These scenarios then had to be defended along with the analysis itself. To confound the situation, warfare and the way we conduct it has been rapidly changing since the end of the cold war with new technologies, new missions, and unpredictable enemies engaging our forces not only in traditional warfare, but also counterterrorism, Homeland Defense, and irregular warfare. The Department of Defense (DoD) Analytic Community has recognized the problem and has implemented a formal scenario development process that is designed to cover current and future threats in the most likely environments. The scenarios that make up the Analytic Agenda are to be used by all the military components involved in the evaluation of existing and future forces. The objective is to provide a suite of scenarios of sufficient breadth to evaluate the fore in its expected environments against a range of possible enemy situations. In conjunction with the scenarios, the Joint Data Support office was established to maintained and redistribute the data generated as part of the Analytical Baselines and making it available for OSD, Agency, and Service studies, wargames and simulations. This presentation explains the process of developing the DoD Analytic Agenda scenarios, describes the current status of the program, and discusses some of the challenges that have been encountered along the way.
Charles D. Burdick, Lockheed Martin Inc. Addressing Hybrid Warfare in a Campaign Environment (Abstract Only)
Campaign level models have traditionally focused on the participating combatants waging war in a conventional combat scenario. Increasingly, however, as stated in the JFCOM Capstone Concept for Joint Operations (CCJO), Operational Art is becoming the arranging and balancing of combat, security, engagement, relief and reconstruction, and training activities to achieve the objectives of the joint operation or campaign—and their continual rearrangement as that operation or campaign unfolds. This presentation describes the use of agent-based simulation objects to simultaneously represent all of the above functions and to shift the allocation of the available forces among these functions in response to automated assessment algorithms estimating the success of the campaign using a combination of hard (e.g. casualties) and soft (e.g. popular support) factors. The participating units on each side adapt by automatically changing their doctrinal rule sets in response to achieving both short and long term goals. As new data is continuously generated on Irregular Warfare (IW) by both human-in-the-loop wargames and insightful inputs from both current and historical IW campaigns; the opportunity exists to expand the capability of agent-based campaign models to analytically represent all aspects of operational art in rapidly executing stochastic simulations.
Steven Wilcox, Serco, Inc Simulation Modeling as a Paradigm for Quantitative Sociological Research (Abstract Only)
The conventional approach to quantitative sociological research is posit a theory discursively, discuss the alternative theories and construct a test of the theory in which one is interested in only one of the causal paths in the system, usually by testing a regression parameter. However, the concepts employed are often system-level attributes such as social disorganization and the use of prose argumentation to understand how the various effects can be separated in a regression model is subject to error. Another problem is that the theoretical entities tend to be fuzzy sociological constructs and poorly suited for direct measurement. Hence indirect estimation is needed wherein the simulation model uses fuzzy constructs to reflect sociological theory but is estimated using measurable entities. To address these concerns, we consider a methodology for making simulation modeling substitute for the quantitative reasoning and inference chain and give an example in the area of criminology. The basis for the new paradigm is a method of flexibly calibrating integrated sociological/economic/psychological simulation models to available data. In addition to testing the parameters of interest, it produces useful model identification information. It sheds light on the sufficiency of measures to identify the coefficients employed, whether there is redundancy, and whether the model needs refinement in view of actual data. To illustrate this method, we employ it to estimate an agent-based model of social influence on neighborhood crime that incorporates the major theories and fills in the missing pieces required to form an integrated theory. This model is summarized as a causal network of concepts with influences between them—a hairball diagram at the individual level, which is estimated using available published data. The analysis of the results from estimating the model reveals redundant parameters based on the simulation runs performed, while showing that one measure of the actual data cannot be adequately accounted for despite the model’s having numerous parameters.
Neal F. Schmeidler, OMNI Engineering & Technology, Inc. Staffing Model Development (Abstract Only)
Many organizations are anxious about the anticipated retirement bubble of baby boomers. Nervousness about this approaching reality is unnecessary. Human capital planning, based on sound staffing models, provides the data required to formulate the plan to prevent catastrophic results. Staffing models are formulas or mathematical models, used to estimate the number of journey-level personnel needed to perform one or more functions for a specific planning period. Staffing models facilitate budget formulation, cost control, alignment of resources with output expectations, workforce expansion/ contraction planning, performance measurement, and more. This presentation, including a case study, describes the steps that lead to credible, defensible staffing models.
Nastaran Coleman and Ellis Feldman, Federal Aviation Administration Estimating Conflict Detection Counts in Air Traffic
The number of potential conflicts which must be detected and resolved between pairs of aircraft reflects sector complexity in the en route environment. It also contributes to air traffic controller workload. A linear programming model was developed in ILOG/OPL to detect potential conflicts between any two aircraft, taking positional uncertainties into account. A set of rules was defined to filter out aircraft pairs having no chance of a conflict. This reduced the number of linear programming iterations from hundreds of millions to tens of thousands. Processing time was further reduced by preventing memory leaks in the modeling environment..
Russell R. Vane III Modeling an Adaptive Competitor (Abstract Only)
This talk addresses the challenges of modeling a finite, but adaptive, competitor to predict behavior to achieve better than game theoretic outcomes. The competitor is considered to be human (subject to psychological preconditioning) with limited resources, both physical and cognitive. Using simple observations in a simple game, the audience will be coached in how to observe the choices and outcomes for any competition, plan for and frequently achieve victories in many situations at work and play, or avoid playing games that are not valuable to you. Using competition theory, evolving strategies based on behavioral indicators allows the player to anticipate others’ strategy shifts. No knowledge of game theory is presumed. Arithmetic will be used in the examples and a new notation representing the current game considerations will be revealed.

 

JOHN W. KLUGE CENTER OF THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS

Mary Lou Reker,Special Assistant to the Director Office of Scholarly Programs Library of Congress Where Scholars Gather (Abstract Only)
The Kluge Center at the Library of Congress presents an opportunity to attract to Washington the best available minds in the scholarly world. It facilitates their access to the Library’s remarkable collection of the world’s knowledge, and engages them in conversation with the U.S. Congress and other public figures. It funds research in the humanities and social sciences, including the History of Science. The Center seeks to bring a group of the world’s best young researchers and senior thinkers into residence, to stimulate, energize, and distill wisdom from the Library’s rich resources. This session will be an opportunity to learn more about the Kluge Center and the research it sponsors

 

MARIAN KOSHLAND SCIENCE MUSEUM OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

Nancy Huddleston and Ian Kraucunas, National Research Council; Jes Koepfler or Joe Heimlich, Institute for Learning Innovation; Sapna Batish, Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences Communicating Climate Change (Abstract Only)
A recent survey by the Yale Project on Climate Change and the George Mason University Center for Climate Change Communication revealed that over half of the American public is either alarmed or concerned about anthropogenic climate change. How do we provide the information they need to make decisions related to climate change? Recent and upcoming work from the National Research Council addresses many of the important policy issues on this topic. During this session, speakers will discuss different approaches to communicating about climate policy to teens and adults through print products, web sites, and museum exhibitions

 

NATIONAL CAPITAL SECTION/OPTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA & IEEE/PHOTONICS SOCIETY

 

George Simonis Opening Remarks on the Early Developments of the Laser
No abstract available
Ron Driggers , Naval Research Laboratory Overview of Optical Sciences and Laser-related R&D at NRL
No Abstract Available
Mike Krainak, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center NASA: Lasers in Space
NASA continues to develop and deploy lasers in space primarily for Earth and planetary science. Recently the Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) mission used the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) science instrument to complete 2 billion measurements of the Earth. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) science instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) satellite has already made over 1 billion measurements of the lunar topography with unprecedented precision with more coming. Plans are underway for the second Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat -2) mission with the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) science instrument under development for launch in 2016. Meanwhile, research and development efforts, including airborne laser remote sensing instruments, continue on global measurement of carbon dioxide and methane to provide important information on Earth ecosystem green house gases as well as data for investigating the possibility of life on Mars. New applications for lasers in space include; 1) interplanetary optical communication – with the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) flight mission on the Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) scheduled for 2013 launch- 2) gravity-wave measurements using the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) 3) Earth ecosystem measurements including vegetation canopy and biomass 4) global measurement of Earth atmospheric winds and 5) high-resolution full Earth topography.
John Degnan , Sigma Space Corp 3-D Imaging Lidar
The first successful photon-counting airborne laser altimeter was demonstrated in 2001 under NASA’s Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). Although the tiny microchip laser transmitter emitted only 2 mJ at a few kHz rate, the “micro-altimeter” successfully recorded single photon ground returns in daylight from altitudes as high as 6.7 km. Sigma Space Corporation has subsequently developed a second generation 3D imaging lidars for use in small aircraft or mini-UAV’s. From altitudes of 1 km, the lidar generates contiguous 3D maps with 15 cm horizontal and few cm vertical (range) resolution. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG microchip laser produces a 22 kHz train of 6 mJ, sub-nanosecond pulses at 532 nm, permitting underwater imaging and bathymetry. A Diffractive Optical Element (DOE) breaks the beam into a 10×10 array of ground spots, imaged by the receiver onto individual pixels of the focal plane array detector. Each pixel is then input to one channel of a 100 channel timer for a 2.2 Megapixel/sec data rate. The multiple stop capability of the detector and range receiver permits daylight operation with large range gates and enhances penetration of tree canopies, ground fog, water columns etc. The dual wedge optical scanner characteristics are tailored to provide contiguous coverage of a ground scene in a single overflight. Recent ground and flight tests have produced outstanding 3D images with minimal point cloud processing. By increasing the laser power (P) and/or the telescope aperture (A), the lidar can be scaled for high altitude operation (40,000 to 60,000 ft) in support of large scale national mapping missions. A photon-counting lidar is seriously being considered for NASA’s ICESat-II mission and has been suggested for high resolution, globally contiguous mapping of the Jovian and Saturnian moons.
John Wood , NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Measurements of the Polar Ice
January 2000 to December 2009 was the warmest decade on record. Greenland is showing a 15 year climate-related trend in ice sheet melt area with a 5 year periodicity to melt. Antarctica shows significant thinning in the margins, and growth in the interior for a net loss of ice. ICESat-2 will continue ice thickness measurements begun in 2003 with the launch of ICESat.
Mr. Ward Trussell , Night Vision Laboratory Development of Compact Lasers for Army Applications at NVESD
The Laser Technology Team of the Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate has been active in the development of compact, low cost, solid state lasers over the last 15 years. Key goals have been reducing the size, weight and power consumption of laser systems while maintaining the ability to operate over the full military environment. The development has resulted in new lasers for laser rangefinders, laser designators and active imaging applications. This briefing will give a summary of the technologies developed and show examples of new products that are now in limited production.
Gary Wood , United States Army Research Laboratory DOD High-Energy Solid State Lasers and Selected Laser-Related Efforts at ARL DOD High-Energy Solid State Lasers and Selected Laser-Related Efforts at ARL
The Army Research Laboratory, ARL, is the Army’s corporate research laboratory and as such provides the underpinning research and development for the US Army materiel needs. Lasers and enabling technologies are important components of many Army systems and possible future systems. This presentation will briefly outline some of the laser R&D within ARL and the motivation. In addition, this presentation will briefly survey solid state laser development toward directed energy weapons throughout DOD.
Grace Metcalfe , United States Army Research Laboratory Generation & Utilization of Optically-Generated THz Radiation
I will give an overview of optically-generated pulsed as well as continuous-wave terahertz (THz) radiation, as well as THz applications in imaging and spectroscopy. Topics will include photomixing, photoconductive antennas, electo-optic sampling and photo-Dember effect. I will also discuss the current research on THz radiation at the Army Research Laboratory, including the development of nitride semiconductors as a novel efficient THz source or detector based on built-in in-plane electric fields and high resolution CW spectroscopy
Ron Waynant , Food and Drug Administration Light Therapy and Free Radical Production: Their Role in Cell Function and Disease
Light therapy or laser therapy has been around for more than 100 years without a known mechanism, but recent research is showing that radiation, perhaps broadband, can influence the mitochondria, the organelles in most of our cells. Depending upon the dose, light or other radiation falling on the cells can generate free radicals and influence the reaction of the cells in both positive and negative ways. Free radicals are believed to play a role in malignant diseases, diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV infection, ischemia and reperfusion injury, obstructive sleep apnea and ROS levels increase in old age. This talk will give an overview of the progression of this field.
Ilko Ilev , Food and Drug Administration Advanced Multifunctional Sensing and Imaging Approaches in Biophotonics and Nanobiophotonics
Biophotonics and nanobiophotonics are emerging fields in modern science and biomedical technology which have opened up new horizons for many unique practical applications in various areas ranging from minimally-invasive diagnostics and imaging to development of novel nanobiosensors and nanobiomaterials. In these fields, there has been great impetus recently for bioimaging and sensing intracellular structures and functions as well as to obtain quantitative information for light-tissue interactions at cellular and intracellular level in the sub-wavelength nanometer range. The presentation will cover fundamental principles, recent developments and trends in advanced biophotonics and nanobiophotonics techniques. It will discuss novel concepts for ultrahigh-resolution bioimaging and sensing, which are based on alternative fiber-optic confocal microscope methods. This technology can be employed in various key biophotonics and nanobiophotonics applications such as developing independent test method for noninvasive pre-clinical evaluation safety and effectiveness of novel medical devices and technology; for studying fundamental mechanisms of light-tissue interactions at cellular/molecular levels; for probing/monitoring intracellular structures and functions; and for characterizing fundamental properties of various nanobiomaterials.

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY (NIST) – PHYSICS DEPARTMENT

Panel Presentation: Climate Change and its Mitigation: The Role of Measurement (Abstracts not available)
1. Gerald (Jerry) Fraser, Chief , NIST Optical Technology Division Examples of Satellite Calibration work
2. Yoshi Ohno, Group Leader in Optical Technology Division Examples of Solid-State Lighting work
3. Hunter Fanney, Chief, NIST Building Environment Division Examples of Solar Panel work
 
Panel Presentation: The Second Quantum Revolution: Putting Weirdness to Work A video of this session is at http://washacadsci.org/videos/nist.htm
1. Steven L. Rolston, Professor of Physics, University of Maryland; Co-Director, Joint Quantum Institute Planck to the Present

How we got to where we are, from the origins of quantum mechanics to the grand challenges of the 21st century: A brief summary of the fundamental components of quantum mechanics and quantum-information science.

2. Luis A. Orozco, Professor of Physics, University of Maryland; Co-Director, JQI Physics Frontier Center The Quantum Frontier Today

How JQI uses a multidiscipinary approach to three broad goals: basic research, quantum simulations and device applications. Among the questions being pursued: What is the ideal qubit, and how can control decoherence and transfer information?

3. Carl J. Williams, Chief, Atomic Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology; Co-Director,Joint Quantum Institute (JQI); Adjunct Professor, University of Maryland Applications for Tomorrow

What kinds of problems a quantum information-processing system could address, including secure data encryption, unstructured database searches and simulation of quantum system. Why these are intractable using classical tools, and how quantum computing would impact science and society.

PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY OF WASHINGTON

Eugenie V. Mielczarek Department of Physics, Professor Emeritus George Mason University The Nexus of Physics and Biology (Abstract Only)
Genetics specifies the organism but all of its functions are determined by gravity, electromagnetism, thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. From the mechanics of fueling cells, to the automotive-like clutches of E.coli bacteria, and the ability of geckos to walk on the ceiling, the physics of living organisms is remarkable. In 2008 the National Academies of Sciences published “Inspired by Biology: From Molecules to Materials to Machines,” examining how research at the intersection of the physics and biology will lead to new materials and devices, with applications ranging from nanotechnology to medicine. This lecture will describe several of these systems and the physics which governs their motion.
Kenneth Haapala,Executive Vice President, Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) Nature Rules the Climate: The Physical Evidence
Many organizations have uncritically accepted the reports of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) as the authoritative work on the subject and have accepted the IPCC’s central premise that carbon dioxide is the principal driver of global warming and climate change. Yet, thousands of independent scientists have not. Many of these scientists assert that significant physical evidence contradicts the IPCC’s central premise. This lecture will cover how the methodology used by the IPCC results in an overestimate of human influence on global warming and some of the physical evidence either ignored or dismissed by the IPCC. Kenneth A. Haapala has spent much of his career critiquing the quantitative methods similar to those used by the IPCC. Over thirty years ago, he demonstrated that the US Federal Energy Administration used inappropriate models to predict the world would run out of oil and the US would run out of natural gas by the end of the 20th Century. He is the Executive Vice President of the non-profit Science and Environmental Policy Project (SEPP) and a contributor to the reports of the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC)
Larry Millstein, Practicing Biotechnology Patent Law – Millen, White, Zelano & Branigan, PC Sequencing Single DNA Molecule and NexGen Genomics
Revolutionary technologies for determining DNA sequences have been developed in the last ten years and are being rapidly commercialized. The first of these “NexGen” devices has already increased the throughput of DNA sequencers more than 100 fold, and greatly reduced the costs per base. A new generation of devices now being developed promises to improve performance another 100 fold and further decrease costs. These technologies will make possible routine whole genomic studies of individuals. Already, “direct to consumer” genomics companies have been formed that provide extensive genetic profiles for just a few hundred dollars. Shortly, such companies will be able to provide complete individual DNA sequences at relatively modest prices. The information from these new DNA sequencing technologies will profoundly alter our understanding of the biological universe that surrounds us, our own genomes and the roles of human genetic variation in health, disease, and therapeutic responsiveness. This lecture will describe in some detail the technology of several second and third generation DNA sequencing platforms, focusing especially on those that operate on individual (single) DNA molecules. It also will briefly explore some ways the new sequencing technologies will be used to study genomic variation, gene expression, epigenomics and metagenomics
Major Catherine M. With,Legal Counsel, The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology The Legal Landscape of Personalized Medicine The Legal Landscape of Personalized Medicine
The term “personalized medicine” has been used to refer to health care that is tailored to the individual. More recently, the term has been used to refer to genetically-based health care. There are numerous apparent benefits to both patients and health care providers when choices about medications, surgery, prevention, and other medical interventions can be made through taking in to consideration each patient’s unique circumstances. This advancement in medicine is derived from the tremendous efforts of the Human Genome Project, and now genetic tests are increasingly seen as the key to dramatic improvements in clinicians’ ability to individualize health care. While the concept of using genetic information to individualize health care is intuitively appealing, such use of genetic information presents unique legal and ethical issues. This presentation will discuss the legal landscape of various U.S. Federal and State laws that have bearing upon the interests of patients, health care providers, and the scientific community as we move forward into the realm of personalized medicine.

 

POTOMAC CHAPTER OF THE HUMAN FACTORS AND ERGONOMICS SOCIETY

William A. Schaudt(1), Darrell S. Bowman(1), Joseph Bocanegra(1), Richard J. Hanowski1, and Chris Flanigan(2) Enhanced Rear Signaling (ERS) for Heavy Trucks: Mitigating Rear-End Crashes Using Visual Warning Signals (1)Virginia Tech Transportation Institute, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (2)U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration, Washington D.C. 20590
In 2006, there were approximately 23,500 rear-end crashes involving heavy trucks on our roadways. Of these crashes, 135 resulted in fatalities and 1,603 resulted in incapacitating injuries. The Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA) contracted with the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to investigate methods to reduce or mitigate those crashes where a heavy truck has been struck from behind by another vehicle. This particular collision type results in higher-than-usual rates of fatalities and injuries compared to types of rear-end crashes in which the lead vehicle is a light vehicle. The most prevalent contributing factor is that of the following-vehicle driver looking away, either into the vehicle interior or to the outside (but not the forward view). Most previous work on prevention of rear-end crashes has been directed toward attention-getting and eye-drawing; that is, trying to get the following-vehicle driver to look forward instead of continuing to look away. The Enhanced Rear Signaling (ERS) for Heavy Trucks project investigated many categories of rear-end crash countermeasures which included both visual and auditory warning signals. The purpose of introducing a visual warning signal, the focus of this paper, was to redirect the driver’s attention and visual glance to the forward view. Visual warnings have been shown to be effective, assuming the following driver is looking directly at the warning display or has his/her eyes drawn to it. This paper will provide an overview of testing performed with visual warning signals positioned on the rear of a heavy truck trailer. These visual warning signals were tested using a static method (parked vehicles with individuals not driving) to determine how well various configurations of visual warning signals would provide improved eye-drawing capabilities. Two static experiments were performed to down-select several visual warning signal configurations prior to dynamic testing on the Virginia Smart Road. Each experiment and the results obtained will be discussed.
Gerald P. Krueger, Ph.D.,Krueger Ergonomics Consultants, Alexandria VAEffects of Medications, Other Drugs, and Nutritional Supplements on Driving Alertness and Performance
This presentation: (1) reviews what the literature conveys about the effects of various chemical substances such as prescribed or self-administered medications, other drugs like stimulants or hypnotics, and nutritional supplements, including energy drinks, have on roadway driving alertness and performance; (2) addresses issues concerning the use of such chemicals for maintaining alertness, especially in terms of affecting safe driving performance of commercial long-haul truck and bus/motorcoach drivers; and (3) provides recommendations about issues of concern to highway safety advocates, employers, and the driving public, including commercial drivers
Nicole E. Werner, David M. Cades, Deborah A. Boehm-Davis, Matthew S. Peterson, Sahar J. Alothman, and Xiaoxue Zhang, George Mason University Where was I and what was I doing? Individual differences in resuming after an interruption and implications for real-world distractions
Interruptions infiltrate our lives in a myriad of ways. Emails, instant messages, cell phones, and other devices as well as people all vie for our attention on a daily basis. Studies show such interruptions can be detrimental to performance and potentially to our safety. In the office environment one study found in 40% of interrupted situations, people failed to resume the original task. Interruptions are also detrimental to high risk environments such as aviation, driving, and in healthcare settings. Hospitals report distraction was a contributing risk factor in 126 incidents of wrong site, wrong person, or wrong procedure events. It is important to try and understand the cognitive mechanisms underlying how we attempt to recover from interruptions. A better understanding may lead to better methods to mitigate the negative effects of interruptions. A study exploring the ways people recover from interruptions found two distinct groups of performers when the content and location of tasks were manipulated upon resumption of task performance. One group was fastest to resume from an interruption when the task type and location were changed. The other group performed slowest in this situation. A follow-up study aimed at determining whether cognitive measures of individual differences in working memory and spatial ability can predict the group into which individuals fall. Surprisingly, neither working memory capacity nor spatial abilities reliably predicted which group people were in based on their resumption performance, suggesting that for some types of tasks, performance may be dictated by the task itself, or by some strategic approach to the task not affected by common cognitive traits such as working memory or spatial ability. Understanding the differential negative impact of different types of interruptions has implications for environments such as office work, driving, and healthcare where distractions are common. In provision of healthcare, better understanding of the specific mechanisms of interruption and resumption of task performance will certainly aid in creating a safer medical environment.
Erik Nelson David G Kidd, and David M Cades, George Mason University The effect of repeated exposures to simulated driving on ratings of simulator sickness
Simulator-based research is a principal method for exploring human behavior and performance in dangerous environments. Examples include examining aviation crew performance while responding to critical failures on the aviation flightdeck; or assessing performance during distracted driving. However, one drawback of conducting research in motion-base simulators employing dynamic computer graphics is the occasional occurrence of simulator sickness, which may lead some subjects to have to drop out of studies before their performance is assessed adequately. For those subjects who chose to continue despite the discomforts of simulator sickness, their performance may also be adversely affected. While considerable research has been conducted to develop symptom scales and other measures for screening out people who may be prone to simulator sickness, few studies have explored how a participant’s susceptibility to simulator sickness changes with experience. That is, how their symptoms and performance change over multiple exposures to training or testing in a simulator. The purpose of this study was to see how the expression of simulator sickness symptoms changes with repeated exposures to a simulated driving environment, i.e. do participants learn to cope with or overcome simulator sickness as a function of continued training? Over the course of three days, test participants were exposed to 10 separate sessions in a motion-base driving simulator. Subjective ratings of simulator sickness were highest during the first simulated drive, and the symptoms seemed to stabilize over subsequent days. Participants who reported prior motion sickness while sitting in the rear seat of a vehicle reported higher levels of simulator sickness during their first exposure to a driving simulator. This research demonstrates that it may be possible to pre-screen and identify individuals who may be more prone to simulator sickness than others. Potentially, these individuals could be “inoculated” against simulator sickness by providing them with repeated brief exposures to simulated environments.

 

POTOMAC OVERLOOK REGIONAL PARK AUTHORITY (A property of the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority)

Martin Ogle, Chief Naturalist Viewing Nature through the “Lens” of Energy
Energy is the greatest “nexus” between human beings and the rest of the living systems of Planet Earth. At Potomac Overlook Regional Park, in Arlington, VA, a new exhibit suite called the “Energerium” explores this relationship, viewing at nature through the “lens” of energy. In the coming decades, society will need to address large and unprecedented challenges related to energy use and it is important that the public is aware of and conversant on these issues and how to solve them. This program will discuss the flow and main points of the Energerium and the relevance and importance of this message for school curricula and public education facilities. The exhibit suite is divided into four main areas. The first area, titled “It’s All Energy,” introduces energy as central to all life on Earth (including all human systems). The second area, “Nature Transforms Energy,” takes classic ideas of ecology (trophic levels, production, consumption, decomposition, etc.) and weaves them together as a cycle driven by the sun’s energy (literally in a physically circular layout). This area includes an introduction to Gaia Theory, the scientific idea of Earth as a single living system. Visitors then find information on the history of human energy use (especially locally) in the third area, called “Energy Transformation and You,” and explore energy challenges and solutions in the final area entitled “Refocusing Our Energy.” This program will also describe working solar energy, energy efficiency and conservation systems employed at Potomac Overlook not only to educate the public, but to minimize the park’s energy consumption

 

SALISBURY UNIVERSITY, WASHINGTON ACADEMY OF SCIENCES STUDENT CHAPTER

Chuck Davis Faculty Advisor: Dr. Mark Holland, Department of Biology Salisbury University Effects of nitrogen availability on lipid production in Neochloris oleoabundans
In order to reduce America’s dependence on foreign oil, biodiesel has been suggested as an alternative that can be produced domestically. Cellulosic and seed sources, however, require vast acreage and influence the price of food. Lipid rich algae are a source of biodiesel that can be produced in large quantities in a small area. In order to develop a strategy for increasing the productivity of algae farms, one of two types of pink pigmented facultatively methylotrophic bacteria (PPFMs), either wild type Methylobacterium mesophilicum or a B-12 overproducing mutant, were co-cultivated with the microalga Neochloris oleoabundans. After measuring algae growth, significant differences were noted between treatments with added bacteria and those grown without, as well as between the two strains of bacteria. Analysis shows that the addition of even a small number of PPFMs enhances the growth of algae. Fourteen days into the trials, however, the chlorophyll content of all cultures decreased dramatically and cell size increased. These are symptoms of depletion of nitrogen in the media. Without nitrogen, algae are unable to synthesize chlorophyll or proteins. Without nitrogen the cells are forced to convert new photosynthate into hydrocarbons and simply store them. It has been shown that under nitrogen limiting conditions N. oleoabundans responds with increased lipid production. The purpose of this study is to understand the growth of N. oleoabundans when co-cultivated with PPFMs under varied nitrogen concentrations and to develop a protocol for optimum cell growth and lipid production that will be of commercial significance
Katie Pflaum and Justin McGrath Faculty Advisor: Dr. Elizabeth Emmert, Department of Biology Salisbury University Use of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus to control infection in Caenorhabditis elegans
Bdellovibrio bacterivorus is a motile predatory Gram negative bacterium that feeds on various types of other Gram negative bacteria. While Bdellovibrio occupies the periplasmic space of a host bacterium, it facilitates the breakdown of host macromolecules in order to produce progeny. After exhausting host nutrients, Bdellovibrio lyses the host cell and searches for a new prey to feed on. Caenorhabditis elegans has been proven to be an ideal animal model for the study of bacterial pathogens, including pathogens that affect humans. A wide range of studies have shown that once ingested, pathogenic bacteria reside in the intestinal lumen of C. elegans, eventually causing death of the worms. We exposed C. elegans to pathogens for approximately forty-eight hours to establish intestinal infections. Then we treated the nematodes with a liquid Bdellovibrio solution for fifteen minutes, allowing the Bdellovibrio and the pathogen to interact in the intestinal lumen of the C. elegans. Our lab has demonstrated that worms exposed to Bdellovibrio in this manner survive longer than control worms exposed to the pathogen. Additionally, we have examined persistence of Bdellovibrio on the treated worms. Following the Bdellovibrio treatment, the worms were ground in a solution and plated out. Preliminary data from our lab shows that Bdellovibrio is present in the C. elegans for an average of four days at a high concentration.
Christina M. Martin Faculty Advisor: Ryan Taylor, Department of Biology, Salisbury UniversityMore than meets the ear: male position relative to foam nests influences female mate choice in the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus
Vocalizations of male frogs are critical for attracting mates during courtship. Females express strong mate preferences for males who produce vocalizations with specific properties (e.g. fast rates or lower frequencies). This female preference produces a selection pressure favoring males with particular calls. Recent work has demonstrated that visual signals are also important for mate attraction, even in nocturnally active species. Túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus, are tropical frogs that build conspicuous white foam nests in which eggs are deposited. Foam nests persist for several days and on subsequent nights, male frogs are often observed calling adjacent to these foam nests. We tested the hypothesis that females preferentially approach the vocalization of a male adjacent to a foam nest. We conducted a two-stimulus choice test where a call was broadcast antiphonally from each speaker. We placed a Petri dish in front of each speaker; one contained a foam nest and the other contained water only. A female was placed under a funnel equidistant from each speaker and allowed to acclimate to the calls before raising the funnel. We scored a female’s choice when she approached to within 5 cm of a speaker. Females expressed a significant preference for the speaker with the foam nest. These data are the first to show that males may position themselves next to visually conspicuous objects in the environment (foam nests) to improve their probability of attracting a mate. Thus, sexual selection in frogs is likely to be more complicated than simple female attraction to male vocalizations.
Denise L. Tweedale, Hannah Greene, and Lauren Kopishke Faculty Advisors: Dr. Mara Chen, Dr. Barbara Wainwright, Dr. Veera Holdai, Departments of Geography and Geosciences & Math and Computer Sciences, Salisbury University Analysis of the Maryland Residential Housing Sales data, 1995 – 2005
The recent housing market crash has contributed significantly to the economic recession. It is imperative to develop a better understanding of factors that affect the housing market in the wake of the economic crisis. This study analyzed housing data from the years 1995 to 2006 on 12 different variables such as the number of house sales, median sale price, average interest rate, and various population and socioeconomic factors. Cluster analyses were done to separate the state into different regions based on the annual changes of housing sales data. Regression modeling was then carried out to examine the effects of a common set of factors on the residential housing markets in each of the cluster regions.
Rebecca L. Flatley and Frederick D. Bauer Faculty Advisors: Michael S. Scott, PhD and X. Mara Chen, PhD, Department of Geography and Geosciences, Salisbury University The Risk and Vulnerability Impact Assessment of Sea Level Rise for Wicomico County, Maryland
Over half of the world’s population lives near or along the coastline, which is also the case for Wicomico County, Maryland. It is situated between the Chesapeake Bay and Atlantic Ocean. Consequently, it is extremely susceptible to the sea level rise and has experienced frequent flooding. In addition, the flood impact can be potentially catastrophic since it is the cultural, economic, and transportation center of Maryland’s Eastern Shore. The objective of the study is to assess the risk and vulnerability of sea-level rise to Wicomico County. The overall structural damage and monetary loss within the 100-meter buffer zone of the 100-year floodplains are evaluated and assessed by assuming the worst case scenarios – two to seven millimeters sea-level rise per year for the next 50 and 100 years. These projections are explored using the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s (FEMA) loss estimation software, HAZUS-MH MR4 and ESRI’s ArcGIS. The research findings are of importance to local community planning and government decision making processes, and the research method is applicable to the studies of other coastal areas.
Kayla Pennerman Faculty Advisor: Dr. Sam Geleta, Department of Biology, Salisbury University Cuscuta transmission and secondary infection of Fusarium wilt
Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) W.C. Snyder and H.N. Hans infects the vascular systems of tomatoes, resulting in Fusarium wilt. This disease is generally considered monocylic as the fungus remains within the host until tissue death. For the disease to be polycyclic, the fungal propagules must originate from an infected host plant and be transferred to a new host. One possible mode transmission may be through Cuscuta. Species of this genus are rootless vine-like parasitic angiosperms, which form intimate aerial relationships with the vascular systems of a wide range of plants. Symplastic connections exist between the parasite and host xylems and phloems. Through these, vascular-colonizing viruses and prokaryotes are able to utilize Cuscuta as a vector. This study aims to demonstrate the possibility of fungal transmission via a parasitic angiosperm. Given that the symplastic connections are large enough to allow entry of hyphae and/or microconidia and Cuscuta does not have efficient defense mechanisms against the proposed fungus, it is conceivable that a pathogenic fungus could be transmitted. If transmission is successful, the second goal will be to demonstrate the possibility of secondary infection of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in tomatoes. The results will further characterize the relationship between C. pentagona and its hosts; and they will have implications on possible transmission mechanisms and on the disease cycle of Fusarium wilt in tomatoes
Nicole S. Massarelli Faculty Advisor: Dr. Don Spickler, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science,Salisbury University The Mathematics Behind Anamorphic Art (Abstract Only)
Anamorphic art is created by distorting an image so that is only revealed from a single vantage point or from its reflection on a mirrored surface. This artistic process was first attempted during the Renaissance and became exceedingly popular during the Victorian Era. The earliest known examples come from the notebooks of Leonardo da Vinci. He successfully sketched an eyeball in 1485 that could only be discerned when looking at the drawing from a certain angle. Artists can achieve this illusion by drawing the image on a distorted grid or looking at the mirror image while drawing on a flat surface. More modern artists using these techniques include Julian Beever, Hans Hamngren, and István Orosz. Hamngren and Orosz use the mirrored cylinder technique while Beever creates three-dimensional illusions on sidewalks using chalk. This project explores how to use mathematics to distort a given image so that it appears correctly on a mirrored surface. Using mainly vector calculus and ray tracing techniques we determined an algorithm for printing the distorted image for the cylinder and the sphere. We then moved on to triangulation methods that can be used for surfaces defined as a mesh. In this talk we will discuss the general procedure for mapping the original image to the distorted image for simpler objects, such as the sphere and cylinder.
Sabrina E. Kunciw Faculty Advisor: E.Eugene Williams, Department of Biological Sciences, Salisbury University Temperature-induced changes in the expression of enzymes involved in membrane restructuring in Coho salmon cells
With the current uncertainty over climate change, it is increasingly important to study how species and individuals respond to changing temperature. Tolerance to variations in temperature is a key attribute for survival during periods of geologically rapid climate change. Because their components are held together by non-covalent interactions, biological membranes are exquisitely sensitive to temperature. Many animals routinely survive changing environmental temperature s (e.g., daily, seasonal) in part because they have the ability to adjust the physical characteristics of their cell membranes. The phospholipids of their membranes are restructured, through specific enzymatic reactions, such that only those phospholipids with physical properties appropriate for the prevailing temperature are included in the membrane. Our goal is to use molecular biology techniques to examine the temporal patterns of the expression of the genes that code for the enzymes responsible for phospholipid restructuring during temperature change. Biochemical evidence suggests that there may be a distinct temporal pattern in the expression of these enzymes; some appear to be switched on early to effect “emergency” measures, while others are activated later in the acclimation process to supplant or augment the emergency changes. We have designed primers for many of these enzymes and tested them using cDNA synthesized using mRNA as a template. The mRNA was extracted from Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) embryo (CHSE) cells maintained in culture. In a series of experiments, cells were maintained at 22C then transferred to 5C for periods from 2 hours to 27 days. mRNA was extracted, converted into cDNA and the cDNA was probed for the enzyme sequences. We have found that indeed, messages for some enzymes of membrane restructuring are constitutively produced (e.g. the delta-6 desaturase [linoleoyl-CoA desaturase, EC 1.14.19.3]) while others are activated after different times of cold exposure. There are also difference in the expression of enzymes of the de novo synthetic pathway and the phospholipid in situ restructuring pathways. Our results suggest that the temperature-induced restructuring of cell membranes in the Coho salmon occurs in a temporal hierarchy.
Jordan Estes and Shelby Smith Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kimberly Hunter, Department of Biology, Salisbury University Nordihydroguiaretic Acid in the Polyploids of Larrea tridentata: Effects of Temperature and Developmental Stage
North American Larrea tridentata is a long-lived shrub that has three ploidy levels in three distinct regions: Chihuahuan Desert –diploid; Sonoran Desert – tetraploid; Mojave Desert – hexaploid. Nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA) is a secondary metabolite of Larrea found in high concentration in the leaves and has antiviral, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. However, NDGA’s function in Larrea is unknown. The relationship between NDGA expression and polyploidy was investigated in greenhouse grown plants of all ploidy levels and hexaploid individuals at early developmental stages. A new method was developed to measure NDGA concentration in a leaf pair. NDGA was extracted using methanol and quantified using reverse-phase HPLC. In greenhouse grown leaf samples and hexaploid seedlings, NDGA concentrations vary with ploidy level and temperature. At lower temperatures in the winter months, an increase in NDGA concentrations correlates with an increase in ploidy level in adult plants and developmental stage in seedlings. At higher temperatures in the summer months, NDGA concentration is decreased, and is near equivalent among ploidy level and developmental stage. The biosynthesis of NDGA appears to be turned on during the transition from seedling to mature plant with expression levels linked to environmental temperature. The positive correlation with increased ploidy suggests that NDGA is likely a protective molecule important for conferring tolerance to high temperature or light.
Catherine M. Walsh Faculty Advisor: Dr. Michael J Bardzell, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Salisbury University The Dynamics of Finite Cellular Automata with Null Boundary Conditions
Cellular Automata (CA), a type of discrete dynamical system, are often studied with periodic boundary conditions over a finite lattice of cells. While there are numerous results about periodic boundary conditions, results can also come from null boundary conditions. Consider CA over finite lattices of cells, where cells take on values from a finite alphabet G. The values of these cells are updated in discrete time steps using a local rule. If G is an abelian group the states of the cellular automaton form a group and the time evolution map often can form a group homomorphism. The kernel of this evolution homomorphism will reveal information about the dynamics of the underlying system, which is represented by a state transition diagram. The nodes of the diagram represent states and the arrows represent time evolution. For example, if the kernel is trivial, then the evolution map is one-to-one and the CA is reversible. Furthermore, the kernel can suggest how long or how many steps until each state within the system will hit a fixed point, or hit a cycle. The state transition diagram’s geometry ties in with the kernel of the evolution homomorphism and determines whether the diagrams is a collection of rooted trees, cycles, and/or products of cycles with rooted trees. Computations of the kernel are analogous to techniques used in linear algebra. However, care must be taken since these systems are not always defined over finite fields, but over abelian groups.
Robert Figliozzi Faculty Advisor: Dr. Miguel Mitchell, Department of Chemistry, Henson School of Science and Technology, Salisbury University Synthesis of Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibiting Nordebromoflustramine B (Abstract Only)
Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) has been cited in recent studies to be one of the major causes of adult dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. The inhibition of this enzyme, BChE, has been shown to improve the memory of Alzheimer’s patients because of the neurofibrillary plaques that it produces. Nordebromoflustramine B is a compound that has significant Alzheimer’s treatment potential because of its BChE inhibition. Through computer modeling and docking software (+) – nordebromoflustramine B and other debromoflustramine B congeners have shown greater BChE inhibition and therefore show substantial potential as Alzheimer’s treatment. We have synthesized (+) – nordebromoflustramine B in a three step process and resolved the racemate into its enantiomers. This process is non-reductive which will make possible the synthesis of future analogs. The information attained through these processes will not only lead to future AD treatments but will also encourage further research on the subject because of the simplicity of the proposed method.
Steven Sanders, Christine Davis and Brett Spangler Faculty Advisor: Dr. Kimberly Hunter, Department of Biology, Salisbury University Genetic Variability in Five Species of Tree Ferns Collected from Cusuco National Park (Honduras) (Abstract Only)
Five different species of tree ferns, Cyathea divergens, Alsophila salvinii, Cyathea bicrentata, Cyathea valdecrenata, and Sphaeropteris horrida, have been collected from Cusuco National Park in Honduras. Operation Wallacea led an expedition into the park, where specimens were collected within three defined collection sites. These samples were collected using FTA cards and extracted with DNeasy Qiagen kits. The geographical location and height was collected from every individual. Heights of individuals detected the age classes within the sites. Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSRs) were used to define the genetic fingerprint of the specimens. The bands are scored as present or absent in the agarose gels, and then converted to 0 and 1 for analysis in excel. The program Popgene 3.0 was used to generate a genetic diversity index of the populations, while TESS 2.3.1 analyzed the genetic structure within the given population based on the genetic markers and geographical locations of the individual specimens. This program looks at dominant markers to seek out any discontinuities within a continuous population, revealing the genetic variability. Small scale genetic variability within these given populations has been detected using TESS 2.3.1. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted using PAUP 4.0.

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING APPRENTICE PROGRAM, GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY

Anh Dao, Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology Mentored by: Dr. Ramchandra S. Naik, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research Quantification of Paraoxonase Activity in Animal Serum to Study Nerve Toxicity
Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents function by irreversibly binding to and inhibiting the action of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in an excessive accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) in synaptic clefts that can culminate in death by asphyxiation. The doses of these toxic chemicals required to induce lethality in half of all experimental animals (LD50, measured in ug/kg) are dependent upon the extent of AChE inhibition in the body, and vary from species to species according to the presence of other enzymes/proteins found in the bloodstream called bioscavengers (e.g. butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), paraoxonase (PON), albumin, etc.). Bioscavengers reduce the concentration of free OPs potentially available to inhibit AChE by binding to or hydrolyzing their toxic components, thus increasing the amount of nerve agent required to induce morbidity. Therefore, knowledge of levels of activity/quantities of all bioscavengers present in blood is essential for the determination of LD50s as well as the selection of animal models used to test nerve agent toxicity. Levels of PON activity in the blood of experimental animals were reported by various investigators using different substrates and dissimilar assay conditions. Therefore, the objective of this study is to examine the comparative levels of PON activity in plasma/serum from various animals (mouse, rat, guinea pig, monkey and human) under standard conditions by using diethyl-p-nitrophenylphosphate (paraoxon) as the substrate. The buffer solution contained a high concentration of salt to prevent interference from other enzyme/proteins exhibiting esterase activity. Under these conditions, no paraoxon hydrolytic activity was exhibited by high concentrations of albumin, cholinesterases (AChE or BChE, up to 4 U/ml), or CaE (up to 22 U/ml). Preliminary results indicated the highest levels of PON activity in humans and comparably lower levels of activity in rats, cynomolgus monkeys, mice, and African green monkeys. No PON activity was detected in guinea pig and rhesus monkey plasma. Experiments are underway to determine the PON levels in fresh serum or plasma samples prepared in the absence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)
Nader Salass, Washington International School and Ahmad Yassin, Lincoln Memorial University Mentored by: CPT Jacob Johnson, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research and Dr. Geoffrey Dow, Walter Reed Army Institute of ResearchHit-to-Lead Evaluation of Antihistamines for Use in Treatment of Malaria
Rapid development of resistance to antimalarial drugs is emerging as a detrimental threat to endemic areas. This is leading to a decrease in viable effective antimalarial treatments and an increase in morbidity and mortality associated with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and vivax infections. After utilizing an algorithm to filter through > 5000 pharmaceutical substances we discovered the potential utility of antihistamine compounds as antimalarial pharmaceuticals. Therefore we hypothesized that antimalarial activity of antihistamine compounds could be predicatively modeled via development of an in silico pharmacophore. In order to use antihistamines as antimalarial pharmaceuticals they must demonstrate potent nanomolar bioactivity across Pf strains and show no clinically significant QT prolongation or sedation. Additionally, we hypothesized that QT prolongation and sedation effects associated with many antihistamines are distinct from their antimalarial bioactivity. To test these hypotheses, we organized the compounds in a database that included chemical structure, mode of action, drug class, side effects, toxicology, hepatic activity and in vitro antimalarial activity. All information was retrieved from Walter Reed Army Institute for Research (WRAIR) Chemical Information System (CIS), except for in silico hERG data obtained in collaboration with University of Pittsburgh and Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) data from Pharmacovigillence Center. For compounds missing data fields, the appropriate tests were ordered through the CIS. Next, we computed the conformational models starting with the optimal spatial antihistamine structures, performed analyses of chemical functions mapping on to the structures, and calculated predictive 3D-QSAR pharmacophore models. The different pharmacophore model developed to test our hypotheses were: A) antimalarial activity of antihistamine compounds against the mefloquine-resistant D6 Pf laboratory strain (Trial 1) and chloroquine-resistant W2 Pf laboratory strain (Trial 2); and B) estimation of the QT prolongation using the in silico hERG data (Trial 3) and estimation of the QT prolongation using the clinically relevant QT prolongation reported from AERS (Trial 4). As further data is obtained for the antihistamines, the pharmacophore will be iteratively updated generating a robust picture. Pharmacophore results may lead to optimization and the discovery of new active molecules useful against malaria without the prolonged QT interval and sedation effects of antihistamines.

 

WASHINGTON CHAPTER OF THE INSTITUTE FOR OPERATIONS RESEARCH AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES (see Institute for Industrial Engineers)
WASHINGTON SOCIETY FOR THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE

STEPHEN GREENBERG Do Come Play: A Demonstration of Online Resources in the History of Medicine from NLM (Abstract Only)
The National Library of Medicine is the world’s largest medical library, and its History of Medicine Division offers unique online resources for students and researchers. Stephen Greenberg, the Division’s Coordinator of Public Services, will offer a hands-on demonstration of these online resources, including PubMed, IndexCat, LocatorPlus, and Images from the History of Medicine. He will also describe the NLM’s new digitization program, the Medical Heritage Library, being created in conjunction with Harvard’s Countway Library, Yale’s Cushing-Whitney Library, Columbia University’s Health Sciences Library, and the New York Public Library.
ALAIN TOUWAIDE Digitizing Renaissance Herbals – The PLANT Program
From the last decades of the 15th century, printers produced illustrated herbals. This production increased rapidly, in both quantity and quality, and became a significant part of 16th-century printing and publishing activity. Although this production has been abundantly studied from the repertoire of Pritzel to the analytical list of Nissen, and many such books are available in a digital format on scattered Web sites on the Internet, it has not been systematically screened taking advantage of the many resources offered by modern information technologies. The Web site PLANT (acronym of PLantarum Aetatis Novae Tabulae, that is, Renaissance Plant Illustration) aims to compensate for this lacuna by systematically listing, digitizing, and indexing the representations of plants in 15th- and 16th-century printed herbals. The communication will illustrate both the content and the promises of the program.
CHRISTIE MOFFATT AND SUSAN SPEAKERThe Profiles in Science Project at the National Library of Medicine (Abstract Only)
In 1998, the NLM launched its Profiles in Science site to make the historical records of eminent biomedical researchers and clinicians available on the World Wide Web. We will discuss the development of this pioneering digital archives project, demonstrate some of the website’s features, and then provide more detailed stories about several of our favorite profiled scientists.
ELIZABETH FEE A Rapid Romp through the History of the World Health Organization (Abstract Only)
The World Health Organization was created in 1946 – 1948 in the social medicine tradition and a brief flush of optimism in the immediate post-war period. Soon, however, the Cold War had an immense impact on WHO policies and personnel. When the Soviet Union and other communist nations walked out of the United Nations and thus out of WHO, the United States was able to exert a dominating influence. This presentation will examine the changing political conditions and their impact on WHO and its programs as it gradually moved from being the unquestioned leader of international health to an organization in crisis, facing budget shortfalls, threatening new diseases such as HIV/AIDS, Ebola, SARS and these days, the likely impact of climate change on population health. New and powerful players on the international health scene have sometimes overshadowed WHO’s role such as the World Bank, the Gates Foundation, and a multiplicity of public-private partnerships created to evade both the bureaucracy and the democratic control of a struggling but still idealistic global health organization.
PATRICIA TUOHY, HEAD, EXHIBITION PROGRAMMedicine Ways: creating an exhibition about Native peoples’ concepts of health and illness (Abstract Only)
In 2006, the National Library of Medicine began the process of developing an exhibition about Native peoples’ concepts of health and illness. The journey has take members of the exhibition team to downtown Washington DC and the National Museum of the American Indian, to Juneau and Anchorage, to Santa Fe and Seattle, and to Honolulu, Hawaii. We have spoken with Native physicians, nurses, healers, public health advocates, clinic directors, educators, community leaders, and mothers, fathers, sisters and brothers. Through these discussions, stories emerged about the origins of medicine, different ways of healing, about healing places and healing people, and about individuals choosing Native medicine and Western medicine to best care for their communities and families. Today, the Exhibition Program is drawing together these experiences and focusing its effort to develop individual “case studies” that will make visible to visitors through media and traditional displays the stories of Native medicine ways.
JIWON KIM, EXHIBITION PROGRAM, HISTORY OF MEDICINE DIVISION, NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE, BETHESDA, MD.History, Literature and Science: Engaging Educators and Students in Harry Potter’s World (Abstract Only)
The Exhibition Program develops companion web sites for its exhibitions that incorporate and present multiple disciplines—science, history, society, technology, medicine, health, literature, etc. These online exhibitions stay accessible on the virtual world, even after the physical exhibitions close or finish traveling. The online exhibition also features education resources that are developed by and for educators from K-12 and higher education institutions. This presentation introduces the process and results of developing the education resources on the companion web site of the Harry Potter’s World: Renaissance Science, Magic, and Medicine banner exhibition. The Harry Potter’s World online exhibition provides education resources—i.e., English and Science lesson plans, a higher education module, online activities, and a bibliography, which are developed in collaboration with educators who have already incorporated and taught various themes from the “Harry Potter” series written by J. K. Rowling. The presentation highlights how working with experienced educators help produce resources that reach diverse audiences beyond traditional patrons of the National Library of Medicine.
PAUL THEERMANThe History of Tropical Medicine, as seen in the Images and Archives Collections of the National Library of Medicine
One of the strengths of the manuscript, still image, and film collections of the History of Medicine Division of NLM is its documentation of tropical medicine. I will provide a short history of 20th-century efforts to understand tropical diseases and control them, illustrated with materials from these collections, and also provide information about HMD’s two subject guides on these topics: “Guide to Tropical Disease Motion Pictures and Audiovisuals at the National Library of medicine,” just released, and “Tropical Medicine Manuscript Collections in the History of Medicine Division of the National Library of Medicine

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